This article is an executive summary which gather the key information on LENR industrial development, with the various actors and their history.
After reading that executive summary,
- You can read an English summary about the scientific evidences of LENR that I've written to complete that one.
- The book "Excess Heat" of "Charles Beaudette" (Buy it rather) is one of the best book on the subject, and just the first chapters may be enough to explain where are the key pathology in Cold Fusion coverage by physicists, journals and media.
- To complete the book of Beaudette, that article answer to recent critics by Kirk Shanahan, explaining the quality of the work of Miles, McKubre, SPAWAR, Iwamura, and extending the range of critics debunking to more recent claims.
- About scientific evidences Jed Rothwell have written an article for wikipedia on LENR/cold Fusion on, which address even better the scientific controversy question, give quotes.
- You may also read the "Student's Guide to Cold Fusion " by Mickael McKubre,
- To understand the epistemological and sociological context of those articles I advise you to read the book "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" by Thomas Kuhn. This is a must to read, that explain very naturally what happen with LENR. This article summarize the book.
- I also advise to read "Antifragile" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (
- I have tried in that article to interpret Taleb philosophy on LENR/cold fusion case.
- or this french/english thesis about the faculties of innovators.
- About groupthink and collective delusion, you will find in that article a description of Groupthink, that you could match to cold fusion history.
- Roland Benabou published a model, and explain some counter-intuitive observed facts in "GroupThink : Collective denial in Organizations and Markets" (slides , Patterns of denials).
Les francophones peuvent lire
- la version initiale en français, relativement obsolète.
- et éventuellement aussi un article sur les preuves scientifiques des LENR traduit en frOOnçais.
- Vous pouvez aussi lire les transparents (Powerpoint, ou PDF) préparés par Tyler van Houwelingen et traduit gentiment par Rémy André.
- Pour mieux comprendre les divers comportements, il peut être utile de lire cette thèse sur les facultés de l'inventeur,
- ou cette synthèse sur "La structure des révolutions scientifiques" par Thomas Kuhn.
- Voici aussi une tentative de décliner la philosophie de Nassim Nicholas Taleb sur le cas de la fusion froide/LENR
What is LENR, Cold Fusion
The LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) is a more technical term for this so-called Cold Fusion.
These effects are observed at conventional temperatures (60° C-1500° C), which suggest a nuclear origin, and in any case much more energy than chemistry (50 to 1000 times more than chemicals). However it does not look like the fusion of stars, or the fission in nuclear reactors. There is almost no radioactivity, no radioactive waste, no stellar temperature ...
The word cold fusion seems there an abuse, but we are not sure really.
It officially begun around 1989 with Fleischmann & Pons experiments : an electrolysis of heavy water (deuterium) with palladium electrodes, impregnated with deuterium... Some have also electrolyzed heavy or light water, with similar metals that absorb hydrogen (forming hydride or deuterides). Results are varying, moreover sporadic, and depending on the products. A family of experiments was to make high-current electrolysis producing a plasma in water. Experiments were also made with metal films permeated by hydrogen or deuterium gas, powders, wires , often heated, electrically or indirectly (several hundred degrees).
This is the subject of controversy, which is not extinguished. Some experiments done in the first 6 weeks of awareness in 1989, have officially discredited this area, but logical and methodological problems were identified which removes any relevance today. Since then many experiments, varied and sometimes well replicated, leave no doubt today. There is still a difficulties to publish in journals with peer review, but some have succeeded. There are criticisms, but obviously less and less serious.
The results are highly variable, but we understand better and better the causes of failures. Those causes account for most failures which have convinced the community that did not work (insufficient loading, surface condition, temperature, impurities, poisoning) ... A key seems to be the notion of active site poorly understood, but clearly linked to the surface and the crystallographic state of the surface, partially determined by impurities.
The effects depend on the reagents, but there are in the classical case heat generation. Total produced energy sometimes exceeds by several orders of magnitude, what chemistry, even unknown chemistry, could release with chemical bonds, and even with extreme crystals dislocations. It is therefore a nuclear reactions, or else more incredible things.
There was also observed transmutations, or radiation. It seems that the transmutation observed are related to the production of heat, but the radiation (gamma or neutron, small but measurable) are anti-correlated with the heat.
Among the most convincing results, there is correlation between the production of helium and heat in the classical experiments (palladium-deuterium). This type of experiments can refute doubts about calorimetry and gas detection, because errors have no reason to correlate. There are also experiments in production, and strangely consumption , of tritium (USA, India).
Among the most tested experiments, and despite a better understanding, there is an erratic success rate, which however can exceed 50%, if like ENEA you control crystallographic and chemical state of the metal. Some experiments (Navy SPAWAR, NANOR) get perfect reproducibility by controlling the surface structure of the metal.
We can make connection with the first results obtained with Germanium, erratic and whose observations were often neglected, rejected and ignored ... Again uncontrolled contamination and surface created conditions so variable that the results were undeniable and unpredictable.
There are theories, some that challenge existing theories (hydrinos, zero point energy, super-gravity...), and others who rely on the usual quantum physics, but assuming collective quantum mechanism, comparable to what is found in LASER or superconductivity (Widom-Larsen, Kim-Zubarev, Takahashi, Brillouin, Defkalion, ...) ... The most recent theories are rather conservative, although clearly lacks some keys.
For twenty years the results , compelling, sometimes huge, but erratic and unusable, discouraged research in this area. Some, such as CEA, CNAM, EPRI has stopped all work, but others like Toyota, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, ENEA, NASA, the U.S. Navy SPAWAR, continued discreetly and more or less steadily ...
Recently researchers (Miley, Piantelli, Celani, Focardi, ...) followed a stranger path, yet ultimately successful, involving light hydrogen with nickel, at high temperature, and using nano-structured materials (micron powders, nanoscale treated foams, nanoscale treated wires).
Despite the difficulties, there is a body of a thousand refereed articles published in journals and about 8 LENR "review". The most recognized is that of Edmund Storms, published in 2010 in Naturwissenschaften. This article, like most articles on the subject is available freely at LENR-CANR.org managed by Jed Rothwell, and reading it is very instructive.
What concrete impact
Fuel density for LENR is huge, comparable to that observed for nuclear. Materials (hydrogen, nickel) are among the most common on earth, and their cost is negligible.
The need for nickel (if consumed, which is not certain) corresponds to a percent of current production, for all the world's energy. Following prices given by Rossi or Defkalion, manufactured fuel prices remain very low, and in the end it would be the price of the reactor and above all of the the turbines that will determine the price of energy. The essential parameter will be the installed capacity and not the consumption. The bill would be divided by ten. The investment cost would match roughly 6 months of total GDP for the transition.
LENR reactors do not produce significant radiation, and can be installed in the building of the heat consumer, or even one day in the appliance itself.
Conversion to electricity will be more expensive via turbines or thermoelectric converters, but the need for electricity will decrease because there will be no need to heat electrically. Moreover, most industrial installations or domestic rather use most energy as heat.
Energy is 10% of our global spending, so we just hope a productivity shock of this order. We can even expect better because various pollution, constraints and annoyances will disappear. Smokes, soot, CO2 will disappear from chimneys, and even cars. Geo-strategy will relax with the end of vital oil with high prices, and therefore military spending.
Ability to produce energy locally will make the grid less vital, and the grid will be used to share and optimize infrastructure for local production. Smart-grid should be a strategic element of the electric revolution.
In the end we could imagine having LENR home boilers with a CHP mode, without cutting the grid that would serve to spread peak demand. More specific generators could be installed in the city or district, to complete.
In the countryside, people would buy a generator pair, rather than paying a line of several kilometers. In the villages, we would share a generator.
The clothe iron, like ovens or washing machines will have a small reactor for heating, or even a thermoelectric converters so no more any need to plug it.
Cars, trucks could travel 5 years without recharging, and in the garage or parking, they could provide the power they don't need to the neighbors, and maybe create a micro-economy of electricity.
Civilian or military, sea or air ships would not have to refuel, except for the crew.
Planes won't adapt easily, but there will be LENR hybrid-electric airplanes, then pure LENR ...
In poor countries, cold fusion could cause a revolution. You can cite for example desalination, but simply pumping services, pollution remediation, agricultural machinery, comfort, access to digital ....
More than applications and cost, it should be noted that this type of reactor requires a very light and local infrastructure. It costs little and mostly work. Poor countries suffer specifically today of national governance and logistics issues. The LENR could, bypassing the poor technical and policy infrastructure, allow development at the right level of local government.
Companies around LENR
It is on this breakthrough, finally giving hope of useful power and good control, that innovative companies offering to develop and commercialize soon cold fusion reactors, bloomed, followed closely by companies wanting to develop specific applications, politely watched by some large companies which are positioning themselves.
The creators of reactors
Andrea Rossi is a controversial industrialist and inventor. He is known to have created a process to transform waste into fuel, set up a business, which collapsed after a change of regulation about waste, with various legal matters. The process seems to be used in the USA today. Meanwhile, he had proposed to the U.S. Department of Defense to develop thermoelectric converters more efficient, with a failure as result...
2010-2011 he announced to have developed a Nickel-Hydrogen cold fusion reactor , the "e-catalyzer".
It was targeted toward the individual market, but Rossi changed strategy to focus on industrial version. Beginning of 2012 he announced he was developing a high temperature version (Hot-Cat, 1000°C) of the reactor, which would be much more efficient. He announced also having developed a gas version. Its electric reactors are able to officially produce 6 times more heat than power in, and gas version 3 times more than gas heating. The advertised price at a time that was around 1000 euro to 10kW, with some ten euro for re-charge ... the industrial price will be higher, but comparable.
It is a crazy character who until 2013 usually made thundering announcements.
He announced the results of tests that are expected, and in the meantime he has successfully launched controversies on internal testing, and may have discouraged a Swedish partner.
Nevertheless, he has partners. Some, such as the German partner seem not serious. Others, like the Swedish partner Hydrofusion seemed a little cold, but were positive in a publicly Swedish documentary spent early 2013. Others like Defkalion Green technologies were disgusted, and now fly on their own.
It is fortunately "Prometeon", the Italian partner, which is headed by Aldo Proia. This executive has a serious profile (a former project manager for solar projects) seems supported by serious investors. His interview confirmed the whimsical side of Rossi, but also clearly state that hides his success, and that his reactor works very well.
Until recently it was the only serious guaranty of Rossi, but a good guaranty, when you read his career.
In 2012-2013 e-cat reactor have been tested by an independent Swedish/Italian team, funded by Elforsk, an organization of energy companies, who propose since may 2013 a draft paper on arXiv. This paper seems solid, but some imagine conspiracy and magicians tricks despite credibility.
In June 2013 Hydrofusion published a call for a "pilot client", proposing to take all the installation and maintenance cost (late fall 2013) for using it as a showcase pilot plant.
In September 2013 Rossi said that they will launch a long campaign of test during probably one year, and that they will only talk about it when completed and documented. It should be published by the testers in scientific journals. The wait will be long.
In January 2013, thanks to E-cat world community, the link between E-cat technology and Cherokee fund, which control Industrial Heat LLC, and with Baoding Sino-US Science and Technology Innovation Park where Nickel-Hydrogen LENR Energy is presented.
On Jan 24 2014, Industrial Heat LLC officialy announced they have acquired E-cat technology, after having participated the Levi&al (Elforsk funded) test, and validated performances with independent experts. Thay announced they failed patents to protect E-cat IP.
Aldo Proia of Prometeon wish them good luck and announce they are still partner for Italy.
Industrial Heat LLC
This company is the owner of E-cat technology. It is funded by Cherokee fund, and have been cited publicly in China for Nickel-Hydrogen Energy joint project.
This company was founded by Greek expatriates investors, many from Vancouver, Canada. It was originally intended to operate a license of Rossi's E-cat. Initially Professor Stremmenos, friends of Rossi, Greek Ambassador in Italy had presented some of his friends in PASOC , like Papaandreou. But after the first contacts and first positive tests meeting, advised by some scientists, they abandoned the idea. A few weeks later, Alexandros Xanthoulis, Greek economist living in Vancouver, came with various investors to operate an E-cat license ... Rossi promised the Canadian license, and changed his intention. Defkalion under pressure from Canadian-based investors breached the contract by claiming a lack of operating time of the E-cat, in summer of 2011. Therefore Stremmenos has reacted very badly to what he perceived as a betrayal of Rossi by Defkalion. He never ceases to denigrate Defkalion since, as he elsewhere denigrate Piantelli another competitor of Rossi.
The R & D team then proposed to try to make a reactor on their own. They tested various methods, some similar to Rossi, but ultimately only one to allow good control involved the production of a plasma with electric spark-plugs in a reactor containing hydrogen and a nickel foam. End of November 2011, Defkalion announced a prototype and preliminary specifications.
Reactor power was in the 45kW for estimated 5000 euro, and a few hundred euro for annual maintenance.
Discussions with developers on their forum suggests competent , and somewhat excited engineers. Alexandros Xanthoulis communication also leaves a feeling of enthusiasm, which opposes his obviously very "corporate" style.
In January 2012 they announced a call for testing by third parties, which would lead to a result in late April 2012 ... But things have been delayed. In the summer during the annual National Instruments 2012 and the ICCF17 they presented a paper describing their results, some transmutations, outline of their methods, but not yet third-party results. They also explained that they had endurance problems with spark-plugs that explained some delays. They also discussed about 6 patents on various points.
They also announced that their partners refused to work with them in Greece because of the collapse of the country, and they were moving to Canada in Vancouver.
In November 2012 they published a badly anonymized report, directed by Michael A. Nelson, a researcher at NASA, working here for an NGO about alternative energy. Nelson had made about him in lambasting the testing protocol, and especially the behavior, of Rossi during his tests. In contrast, with Defkalion he seemed to enjoy the freedom during reactor test. The result was modest (+200% of energy compared to additional input, but with justifications related to the low temperature of operation).
December 2012, Defkalion moved to Vancouver for 3 years, and an article in an important Greek magazine ("To Vima") presents this new company, its technology and projects. According to the article, they were approached by almost all developed countries have dozens of partners and contacts for varied transport applications . Oil company seem quite positive towards them. The company reactivated its website in February 2013 and get out slowly from his silence.
Peter Gluck, published an interview with Yeong E. Kim of Purdue, where he claim having met Defkalion, seen a demo, discussed about their respective theoretical position theory, and where he show intention to collaborate. Note that Yeong Kim theory (Kim-Zubarev) have been the subject of simulation during a collaboration with National Instruments (as reported by Stefano Concezzi in 2012 conference in Brussels and Rome). Later, as planned, during ICCF18 Yeong E Kim presented more detail on Defkalion reactor, and his theoretical proposal based on Defkalion data.
During ICCF18 Defkalion also broadcast two demonstration organized July 22nd and 23rd in Milan, in Defkalion Europe, with an Italian Skeptic Society invited, and transmission via a web TV to ICCF18. The demonstration was done in their lab, with their instruments, but with visible opennesss and allowing observers to look and touch. However Luca Gamberale report some discrepancies in measurement to be corrected. Due to busy planning it will be done only in September, and meanwhile he froze commercial relation with potential clients.
As said by Luca Gamberale, the test was not definitive, and just shown their open behavior and self-confidence. The test , depending on bias and options taken (optimistic, paranoid, conservative), can be interpreted of evidence of fraud, technical trouble, weak-performance, self-confidence, or huge performance.
Beginning of August, Defklalion have been interviewed by ToVima.gr newspaper announce that they prepare to go public on Toronto Stock Exchange for mid-October 2013. They will have to disclose the name of their partners, licensee, and probably third-party testing results. This public intent shows they feel serious, but experience in innovative enterprise and around LENR push us to be careful, and prepare for extreme opposition and Murphy's laws consequence.
End of November 2013 Defkalion answered to Franck Ackland that they were reorganizing their R&D, commissioning a new reactor, and that there will be no news until mid January. Before Christmas Defkalion announced that they "completed a first phase of R&D for the basic reactor", moved inside their building in Vancouver, and have offices in Athens.
Yeong E. Kim who presented Defkalion reactor at ICCF18 with Defkalion CTO, was hired by a turbine maker, Cyclone Power, because of his competence in LENR physics. Nothing says it is related to Defkalion, but it would be logical if Cyclone was a partner with Defkalion.
End of 2013, Defkalion announced on their website that they moved their office inside the same building in Vancouver, opened offices in Athens. They said they were commissioning a new reactor, finishing the R&D phase.
Early 2014 they announces that they are finishing the heat management and control for the pre-industrial prototype. They says they are doing "robust calorimetry" avoiding criticized water calorimetry. They say that several third party will publish their results (when?). they expect commercialization on 3rd quarter 2014...
The huge problem is that since summer 2013, Defkalion never addressed the question raised by Luca Gamberale. None of their announce seems backed up by facts. The nly fact is the report of Mickael Nelson, who confirm but repeat the results were preliminary.
Brillouin Corporation is headed by Robert Godes. They announced the creation of a reactor based on a theory (using the "Brillouin zones") developed by Godes. Their first reactor, wet, has been validated by the SRI with indisputable performance ("+100%") but still not usable". They work with the SRI, a non-profit research center aimed at developing local industry around Stanford, who did the tests. They develop a new "dry" reactor with better performance.
Godes is quite critical about Rossi and Defkalion, who he accused of not understanding how to activate the reaction. He says that his theory gives him the ability to control the reaction at will.
In September 2013 Robert Godes was interviewed. He claim having presented test engineers to NRL and Google. Their patent attorneys are paid in equities, evidence of their trust in the economic model. The COP is only 3 for the low temperature reactor. They claim/expect a COP of 100 at 600C for a hot reactor. They have raised $3 million, but have a conditional agreement of $20 million (Investor is Sunrise Securities). It is conditioned on testing of they Hot tube reactor by SRI, then a successful retrofit of an existing 5-10MW power plant. No report of such test yet. Godes also claimed a visit of Nicolas Chauvin of LENR-cars and LENR-invest, who when questioned did not deny.
End of 2013 Robert Godes told to Sterling allan that they were funded by a South Korean licensee, and that they planned production end of 2014. He says that SRI, spearheaded by McKubre is testing they HHT hot reactor.
Blacklight Power is a company that aims to develop reactors using the "hydrinos" theory of Mills . This theory is highly controversial because it challenges the current physics.
They have recently announced managed to develop hydrinos reactors producing electricity directly without thermodynamics conversion . The device is been discussed in reports by some individual researchers who observed it and confirm it works.
Direct electrical conversion is a great hope, but the fact that this phenomenon has not been reproduced by others may leave us skeptical. Recent report of electromagnetic field by Rossi and Defkalion let that question open.
In January 2014 they published an announce about a show for the end on January 2014.
Great caution is required before clear evidence is presented.
Lenuco is a company created to commercialize the technology Dr. Miley. Its first application is the replacement of radioisotope generator of spacecraft for NASA.
Lenuco has since applied to ARPA-E funding for a 10kW home co-generator, but failed.
Miley have applied a patent for his NiH co-generator.
NanorTech (ex Jet Energy)
NanorTech (initiallyJet Energy) is a company which is currently trying to commercialize Professor Hagelstein NANOR. During ICCF17 they explained the importance of this small device the size of a resistor, capable of producing 10 times more energy than it receives (40-80 was claimed later in January 2013 during IAP courses at MIT), for laboratories seeking to understand and validate the cold fusion. At ICCF18 they announced huge improvement through variable magentic fied, and their renaming as "Nanortech" to commercialize Nanor.
Nichenergy is a company created by Piantelli to sell Nickel-Hydrogen reactor technology , based on his work. We have little information.
A patent by Piantelli, recently granted for a reactor using nickel powder, drew criticism from Rossi and his friends Stremmenos.
Etiam Oy is a discrete small company, which filed a patent late 2011, which was granted summer 2013. This patent seems serious, and the inventor have an interesting CV in R&D. Patent is not evidence, but Etiam Oy (alias Etiam Inc.) may surprise us.
University of Missouri and Energetics Technologies
Robert Duncan a boss of the University of Missouri had agreed to expertise on behalf of CNBC and its "60 minutes" show, the claims of cold fusion of an Israeli company : "Energetics Technologies." Initially skeptical, he became since an active supporter.
The 2013 conference on cold fusion (ICCF18) was held in his university.
Since then the activity of LENR patents and Energetics Technologies was acquired by the university, which continues the in-house developments.
ICCF18 was sponsored by ENEA and National Instrument.
Robert Duncan move to a modest university in Texas. Since they hire his wife too, it seems not a sanction, but a desire to hire a professional who have developped University Of Missouri research program.
Startups companies, wishing to use the reactors
Besides the companies proposing to develop a reactor, others propose to use them to revolutionize some areas.
LENR Cars is a Swiss startup founded by a serial innovator: Nicolas Chauvin. It aims to create a car based on Cold Fusion, beginning first with an electric car hybridized with cold fusion, then developing less and less hybrid models.
Their first idea would be to put a cold fusion reactor in a Tesla-S, whose batteries are recharged by thermoelectric converters. He is currently working to replicate the work of Celani in the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project.
An article in the past AGEFI Geneva where we learn that it is funded by the founder of Logitech, who is also enthusiastic. They evoke discussions with automakers Tesla and PSA (Peugeot-Citroen). Another similar article in "Le Temps" reports some opposition of one EPFL hot-fusion physicist.
Robert Godes of Brillouin cited visit of Nicolas Chauvin, who when asked don't deny.
LENR-Cars was nominated for a local entrepreneurship prize (PERL) in Switzerland (Lausanne), and was selected by a (E)MBA school to host students for 2012-2013.
In november 2013 LENR-Cars applied for a contest "Future Energy Ultra Light Startup", and seems to have won the voting contest, and could be invited for an Arpa-E event. This follow two unsuccessful applications by George Miley of Lenuco. It seems they lose a second round of vote by "investors"...
Kresenn is a British startup aiming at developing autonomous data center with cold fusion. Its founders are Italian. They work with Celani.
They signed a partnership with LENR-Cities
LENR Cities is an initiative launched by Michel Vanderberghe (France) and Didier Pelluet (Switzerland), which aims to create a networks of innovative businesses, and to partner with local businesses, to be able to change the market and use energy at the local scale. This economic model is theorized under the title "The Business Factory."
Michel Vandenberghe joined the initiative Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project.
During spring 2013, LENR-Cities signed partnership with Kresenn, and with a new structure LENR-Invest. They announce that they are proposing their project in May to Neuchatel swiss district and city.
This new company is created to fund industrialist needing support and funding to industrialize LENR application.
It have a partnership with LENR-Invest.
This company is managed by Aldo Proia and is an official licensee of E-cat since 2012.
After Industrial Heat LLC announced they have acquired E-cat technology, Aldo Proia of Prometeon wish them good luck and announce they are still partner for Italy.
Large companies and agencies
In addition to these innovative small businesses, some large companies have a strategy that is leaking, when they don't fill the screen.
This company that sells electronic laboratory instruments recently called cold fusion as "guest star" for its annual conference, NIWeek 2012. : 4 presentations on Cold Fusion, a panel with reactor manufacturer (Brillouin, Defkalion) and researchers (Takahashi of Toyota / Technova), and a public demonstration of a small demonstration reactor by Celani. It all culminated with the conference of founder "Truchard," who announced the coming revolution, and how National Instrument was supporting those new "Edison".
Before NIWeek, Stefano Concezzi, the director of "Big Physics" (clients linked to heavy physics experiments like LHC, ITER, ...) gave a conference in Brussels and Rome, where he announced that his company have made double-blind replication of cold fusion experiments by ten laboratories, and that they were supporting cold fusion researchers.
This communication strategy, whereas cold fusion is an infinitesimal client for NI, suggests that this is a strategy to acquire an image of a pioneer in an industry that will soon no more be ostracized.
Unlike in 2012 next NIWeek2013 did host NO LENR presentation. They moved their strategy to sponsoring of ICCF18.
Dennis Cravens have been the only LENR presence, with some tiny experiments and some LENR-tea.
National Instruments is the sponsor of ICCF18, the international cold fusion conference. Truchard, the boss "James Truchard" will give a keynote conference at ICCF18. NI will organize a LabView workshops there.
Ubaldo Mastromatteo of STMicroelectronics Italy, is working since long on LENR.
ST Microelectronics has recently validated the work of Celani in his lab, and there was identified French employees of the company or subsidiary (STNewVentures) at a conference in Siena.
STMicro filed a patent early 2012 about method to design and control a LENR reactor, which seems matching their work on Celani wires. It is still pending. They already hold 2 other patents around LENR. Mastromatteo is inventor in each case, and STMicro own the patent.
When Fleischmann has been lynched by the scientific community, he was hired by Toyota. The results were not very interesting. But research continues in Japan, particularly in the Technova laboratory in Kobe where work Professor Takahashi.
Mitsubishi also continues to do research on cold fusion. One of his great results was performed by Iwamura: proof of transmutation during the permeation of hydrogen in thin films of metals. They presented the results at the American Nuclear Society this winter, end of 2012. Toyota researchers confirmed replication.
Italian and French company, oil exploration subsidiary of ENI, has been identified as present in a few Conference on Cold Fusion.
Shell was quoted as present at the workshop ICMNS in Siena in 2012.
Shell through its innovative "ShellGamechanger" would be interested in cold fusion after Defkalion in the last article of "To Vima" (a well known Greek newspaper - "The Tribune").
Exxon according to Defkalion in the article "To Vima" would be interested in acquiring a Defkalion, when the time comes ...
Some employees have been seen in LENR conference.
Elforsk is a swedish R&D consortium, organizing research and development for electric companies, industrialist of the domain, and public authorities. It funded and organized the independent test report of E-cat in 2012-2013.
In november 2013 Elforsk published a report about LENR landscape(in english), in which it detail various claims, various tests, with positive skepticism.
Professional body representing professional American electricity, has recently made a small test report positive but unconvincing on cold fusion.
This organization which brings together professional of nuclear industry invited Steven Krivit to present cold fusion and Widom-Larsen theory at its winter conference. Mitsubishi Heavy Industry also presented Iwamura results and confirmed replication by Toyota.
A new presentation was done late February 2013 by Miley and al.
NASA GRC have done some experiments in 1989 that give interesting results (gas permeation producing anomalous heat), but results were ignored because of incoherence with theory (no neutrons). Experiments were replicated later (2008) and few actors at NASA support it's reality in public (Nasa GRC site, Zawody,Bushnell, Melich,Nelson...).
NASA is funding a seedling project for a "Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft : Propulsion Airframe Integration" with Doug Wells affected on that project. This project will be presented at NASA Seedling 2014.
in December 2012 they launched a press-release announcing they hired Yeong E. Kim, LENR theoretical physicist, known for having presented a paper at ICCF18 with Defkalion CTO, or having cooperated with National Instruments in 2012 to check some numerical models of his BEC theory.
The president of cyclone thanked Nick Connor of The Energy Trust LLC for "his vision and bringing [them] together".
Energy Trust LLC
This trust manage oil and gas private equity funds. Cyclone Power thanked one of their employee "Nick Connor" (of Indian) for "his vision" and "bringing [Cyclone and Yeong E Kim] together".
No more information, and no data to confirm if that trust have any commitment in LENR.
No confirmation nor deny.
This fund is identified as the owner of Industrial Heat LLC and funder of some joint project in China around Nickel-Hydrogen Energy.
It seems to be funding green project, like brown field remediation.
Baoding Sino-US Science and Technology Innovation Park
From public press release in Chinese, found by e-cat world a partnership between a partner of Rossi, Industrial Heat LLC and Cherokee fund, and this state supported park. In the press release, Nickel Hydrogen Energy is clearly named.
More data is required to know if the partnership succeeded.
The year 2013, will it be the year of Cold Fusion?
When one observe news around LENR, he is shocked by the difference between feverish activity, thundering announcements , validations which multiply the circumstantial evidences of 'business' credibility ... and outside the dead silence in Orthodox Thought.
Will the year 2013 be the year you will see these two worlds come together in a large general curtain removal on cold fusion?
Some older researchers, don't dare to believe it, since they were so many time disappointed before.
Hearing the same litany of obsolete facts repeated, ignorance of the facts of less than 23 years old, the rejection of any debate, self-referent reasoning, we can estimate that the scientific debate in public will never be possible .
Yet a closer look the situation is different. Hitherto hopes came from scientific experiments that should have convinced rational minds, long ago. But here there is a movement of entrepreneurs and innovators, of large companies worried and looking for any opportunity or risk. All human passion come together to consider the Cold Fusion as an opportunity to catch or at least, not to miss.
The devil came out of the box and nothing can make it go back in.
It will happen, but it will be slower than expected. Will it be 2013? Recent numerous delays, seems to say that the awakening will be no better than 2014. Rossi should report his definitive tests mid 2014, Brillouin will not be ready until late 2014, and Defkalion was late as expected, currently saying they will not make announce before mid January 2013.
Anyway, even if low profile, business actors are more and more integrating LENR. looking honestly at news, what happened in 2013, like Elforsk test of E-cat, their Perspektiv article, Cyclone Power communications, should have flooded the media, and only an awful media blockus prevent that. It will be hard to be accepted, yet it will advance at business speed.