Just today I fall on another article about the death of John Huizenga, the man who delayed the chance for Cold Fusion to make our world better of 10-20 years.
John Huizenga dies at 92; physicist helped discredit 'cold fusion'
John Huizenga worked on the Manhattan Project, helped discover two chemical elements and co-led inquiry into 'cold fusion,' the 'scientific fiasco of the century.'
Thanks to LA Times to allow us to comment (it seems less and less allowed), but my dreamed answer was too long for the rules, and finally it makes a good article. Feel free to critic, correct, comment and improve :
It seems your article is uninformed, but anyway state the current consensus.
One of the best voice to talk on cold fusion science have been Charles Beaudette, in Excess Heat. (You can find his book on the site of University of Tsinghua
, courtesy of the author, or on on-line libraries).
His work, was to document and analyse the critics. His book contains much more citation of scientific papers, and by the way many many more after 1989. In fact the only good results appeared after one or two years of hard work, and only by competent electrochemist.
As Beaudette reminded, physicist had abandonned the domain of calorimetry in the 1950s, to focus on nuclear physics, thanks to the success of Manhattan project, which launched many nuclear physicist in the higher governmental sphere.
There have been in 1996 only 4 critics, by Lewis, Hansen, Wilson, Morrison.
The one of Lewis, that the cell was not mixed, was asserted enough strongly in Baltimore conference, with hidden insults and understatements, to convince the planet and terrorize dissenters... it was in fact a huge evidence of his ego and his incompetence. Fleischmann rebutted it quickly showing that his cell was perfectly stirred by design (which Lewis could not imagine without decades of experience). It tooks 2 more years to prove with measurements that the temperature was stable at 0.01C, thanks to the design.
Fleischman&Pons cell design (a Dewar with hard vacuum,tiny and lonk neck, compact shape for self-stirring, open electrolysis, refilling measurement to control recombination) was replicated exactly in 1996 by CEA (Longchampt).
Meanwhile many other design replicated the results, with different techniques : Oriani used seebeck calorimetry with opencell and separated gas to cancel recombination (His paper was peer-reviewed but rejected afterward because of what Scheckman denounce today). McKubre (SRI) used a closed pressurized cell with recombination, with temperature compensation ensure isothermal mode and flow calorimetry. Miles (Of Chinal Lake Naval Air Warfare) used open cells, and captured the gases. He organized double blind measurement of He4 with Bush of Texas university, and proved that Heat and He4 were commensurate. ENEA later with Report41 Deninno confirmed that only active cells did produce He4.
Many labs proved Tritium (but not with heat) which as Huzenga admitted could not be an artifact, from US to India. This is why he concluded it could not be an artifact, thus without any evidence, concluded it was a fraud. 3 inquiry were launched, all failed, but it did not change his position.
Hansen raised the problem of recombination, but again it was rebuted by facts. Fleischmann was measuren the recombination by measureing the refilling. it was below 1% and negligible compared to the 15-50% of anomalous heat (and heat after death).
Wilson produced interesting critics, and by the way he rebutted Lewis and Hansen arguments. He nevertheless admitted undeniable anomalous heat even after his corrections. This was presented as a critic, but was in fact a confirmation.
Morrison critic was just based on misunderstanding, and was not maintained.
None of the 4 critics are anymore defended. The summary is that according to science, Cold fusion excess heat is replicated, measured, and no critic is maintained. Why it is the consensus that Cold Fusion is bad science? It is a cognitive cascade that can be explained by the Groupthink theory of Roland Benabou (Find his papers at Princeton, Groupthink: collective delusion in organizations and markets).
Lewis with Garwin visited the lab of another replicator (McKubre, with closed cell, in isothermal mode using flow calorimetry and recombination), and found nothing. Like any honest man he stay absolutely silent about that fact, moaned about minor details that did not rule out results, and continued like Huizenga to say that since it was impossible, and there was no artifact found, it was thus unknown artifact...
People should really read the book of Beaudette to read the details, to check the scientific articles, and judge of their respective quality, and about the ethical structure of each camp. This book is boring like an attorney report, but raise furror to the one who understand what it reveal.
The argument that there was no neutron is like a cowboy saying that bull dont produce milk, or birds don't have horn. The only question was about the excess heat, and it is proven.
It is true that all physicist, except one trained by Heinz Gerischer (a skeptic German top electrochemist of Plank Institute who admitted in 1992 that Excess heat was real), failed to reproduce Excess Heat. Most did not measure it and focused on neutrons.
Many did not know the required conditions, discovered few years after, about deuterium loading, current density, palladium impurity selection, crystallographic structure of the surface (found recently by ENEA/NRL/SRI). Their main problems were that they were assuming cold fusion was hot fusion, expecting what was not there, they expected quick result where it tooks minimum 3 month to obtain a single result, and finally they were simply incompetent relatively to the extreme complexity of the calorimetry, which was challenging even for the top expert.
Serious electro-chemist obtained results in more than 1 year, often 2 or 3 years to cross-check all...
Back to business and free-market, please note that Cherokee fund (who manage billions of $ in energy) have invested 12million$ in an LENR technology (E-cat bought by Industrial Heat LLC).
They have signed agreement with the technology park of Badoing HIDZ, known as the valley of electricity in China.
Darpa is funding LENR research, hidden as nanotechnology since few years.
US navy after SPAWAR (closed when boss changed), is researching actively in NRL with Italian ENEA and SRI. It seems even that SRI is subsidized to test the technology of others commercial companies, and have replicated 5 of them (from SRI McKubre).
NASA GRC state on their internet site that Excess Heat is proven, and Doug Wells works for NASA/NARI to study LENR propulsion for planes, in seedling project (conference soon in 2014).
Toyota have recently replicated the research of Mitsubishi (Iwamura), and published in JJAP a peer-reviewed journal... Unlike the myth, many LENR papers are published in peer-reviewed papers like in Naturwissenschaften, Journal of electroanalythical chemistry, JJAP... Thanks to Pamela Boss (Spawar), Schekman, to have described the problem to publish in high-impact journals, that Enea report41 DeNinno and Oriani have revealed.
I have no doubt that Huizenga was sincere and honest when seing that Bockris (and others in US and India) cells were producing tritium, he concluded that it could not be an artifact, and THUS it HAVE TO BE A FRAUD.
Future will say how that statement have to be judged. Sadly many scientist of that affair are dying, and it will ruin our chance to obtain excuses.
Sorry for the family. I have no doubt all was done with sincerity. It is a tragedy of Groupthink, like are subprimes, Challenger, Enron, and... many others in process...
All assertion on theoretical question, either in 1989 or today, are for me without foundation until we have more data. No theory works. It seems data will came from free market and venture capitalist, not from peer-review or pet-theories.
Published on 3 Feb 2014
By AlainCo (email@example.com)
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This is time to think about one of the most dreamed application of LENR to every day life : The Cold Fusion car.
The article of ibTimes talks if using E-cat technology to make hybrid-electric cars.
It discuss also of Dennis Craven Crowdsourcing campaign to develop a cold fusion car. I found no recent news about that project.
They did not discuss of the "LENR-Cars", the startup of Nicolas Chauvin, initially dedicated to that kind of project. It is only at inception state with general presentations. Their presentation for ILENRS2012, was already interesting to underatnd the potential. The video of Nicolas Chauvin Presentation for
show their strategy and achievement (patent, MFMP, studies) with more details...
Nicolas Chauvin is quite active in the community, and even proposed a Chinese Stirling engine manufactured to Rossi. He also applied for Arpa-E sponsored Ultraligh startup competition, but seems to have lost at 2nd turn.
His vision is quite evident, and match in fact the vision of NASA/Boeing SUGAR LENR plane:
- A first step would be to design a LENR recharged electric car. For LENR-cars they think of a Tesla S, with some batteries replaced by a LENR reactor with Stirling engines.
- A second step, with better technology, would be to design an hybrid car specifically with more powerful LENR group, and less batteries...
- Finally when LENR and thermal engine or TEG get enough cheap, controllable and efficient, a full (or micro-hybrid) LENR propulsion group could be designed.
The vision of Rossi, expressed on his blog is that it will takes 20 years before it is affordable and safe. Of course the enthusiast like me hope it will be faster.
Rossi made good points anyway. It seems that LENR reactors today are less mature than what we imagine, and are not very controllable. The fact that there is no third party test claiming good COP raise concern about the current technology maturity of LENR.
Road vehicles are a very aggressive environment, with vibration, changing temperatures, crash and safety constraints, and it may trouble the LENR phenomenon until engineers work on that problem.
The price of thermal engine, turbines, TEG is today absolutely huge. I have discussed with some Car engineering experts and they say however that with mass production, the required thermal engine could go below 1000$ as it is the case for a car engine.
The cost of maintenance is also a problem,like the competence of the garage mechanics.
It seems reasonable to say that mainstream LENR cars will not be a reality before 20 years... maybe pessimistic?
Sure there maybe very specific niche markets. LENR-Cars seems to propose to share the same niche of luxury cars, as Tesla does.
Another niche market is corporate fleets, like for Postal services fleets, on-site maintenance fleets, and why not afterward, the car rental fleets. It is currently the other niche of electric cars.
Of course the niche market of military vehicle will be receiving that innovation as a benediction, because fuel is paid in blood during war, and they work on it.
My optimistic view is that 3-5 years after the first non industrial reactor get certified (home E-cat, Hyperion, downsized HHT) there will be prototypes as LENR-cars prepares...
Quickly it will be tested in the military niche market.
After few years some luxury cars will be designed from existing vehicles, and sold at awful price.
after 5 years probably there will be professional vehicles targeted to corporate fleet, with matching training and equipment for maintenance inside corporate garages.
And after 5 years more the first mainstream vehicles will be targeted to common people, based on corporate feedback and retraining of the garage mechanics.
We are not far from the 20 years Rossi does estimate...
Keep your diesel or gasoline car.
Published on 2 Feb 2014
By AlainCo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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Revolutionizing the Future of Battlefield Energy: Advanced Power Sources Based on LENR (George Miley) [updated-2013-01-31]
I fall today on that small news about an event in Washington this Monday.
I spotted a name among the Speakers:
Monday in Washington, January 27, 2014
REVOLUTIONIZING THE FUTURE OF BATTLEFIELD ENERGY. 1/27-29. Sponsor: Institute for Defense and Government Advancement (IDGA). Speakers: Thomas Trabold, Director, Center for Sustainable Mobility, ROchester Institute of TEchnology; George Miley, Professor, Nuclear Engineering Lab, University of Illinois; Swastik Kar, Professor of Physics, Northwestern University.
The description of the conference is not (of course) talking about LENR :
Revolutionizing the Future of Battlefield Energy
The Department of Defense is the single largest consumer of energy in the U.S., spending about $22 billion per year on energy. Now, however, reliable access to affordable and stable energy supplies poses a significant challenge for the military. This energy demand constrains the capabilities of our ground, air, and sea forces at home and abroad. The DoD has prioritized its responsibility to act in a more sustainable manner and has understood that changing current behavior could enhance military capability and provide considerable cost savings.
“By reducing the Armed Forces’ reliance on fuel, we aim to improve warfighting capabilities. We aim to reduce the risk to fielded forces as they move fuel through contested territory. In the process, we believe we will lower costs, promote good stewardship of natural resources, and contribute to national energy goals.”
— The Honorable Sharon E. Burke, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy Plans and Programs
The Department must find ways to reduce energy costs and become more efficient. In the FY 2014 budget submission, the DoD continues to invest in metering and alternative energy sources like solar. This budget includes investments in research and development for more efficient ship and aircraft engines, longer-lived batteries for our ground-based communications systems, lighter batteries for troops to carry, and alternative energy sources to lessen dependence on oil in the future.
11:00 AM Advanced Power Sources Based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions
I could not find any slides of the presentation, but the title allowed on the schedule and the fact that George Miley was not immediately arrested is a good sign.
The irony is that I've just published this synthetic article on DoD about LENR this morning.
One more reason to imagine that the DoD is aware of LENR.
UPDATE: not so sure, but... at least their weapon providers.
UPDATED on 31/01/2013:
The conference is private funded, but welcome militaries and weapon manufacturers.
Ecat suomi, have found the brochure of the summit, with a more detailed description of the presentation by Miley:
Advanced Power Sources Based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions
“Currently, the state of practice power system is heavy, bulky, not efficient enough, and cannot function properly in some extreme environments. With LENR based heating source, the used fuel, such as H2 or D2, is virtually inexhaustible. The reaction products are mildly radioactive such as He4 from D-D reaction and the beta decay from possible transmutation, but with their short range, both products can easily be contained, thus lowering down the maintenance cost. The huge energy released in the nuclear reactions makes this an extremely compact, long-lived energy source.”
How you will benefit:
- Learn how to optimize excess heat generation from nuclear reactions to provide energy
- Look at encompassing sufficiency, surety, and sustainability to support critical missions
- Demonstrating the potential for unlimited energy gain
George Miley, Ph.D
Nuclear Engineering Lab
University of Illinois
Thanks to both for enriching the data.
Published on 29/01/2014 By AlainCo (email@example.com)
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Today I fall on one of the classic article reporting the death of John Huizenga, one of the most important, powerful, and stubborn opponent to cold fusion.
John R. Huizenga, Physicist at Fore of Nuclear Era, Dies at 92"
John R. Huizenga, a physicist who helped build the world’s first atom bomb, solve dozens of atomic riddles and debunk claims that scientists in Utah had achieved nuclear fusion in a jar of water, died on Saturday in San Diego. He was 92.
Sadly for me it is written by William Broad, a co-author of "Betrayers of the Truth", which introduced me to scientific fraud problematic. I have always been surprised how skeptics, fraud watchers, can be quickly blind when fraud is mainstream.
Huizenga, like many skeptic groups, have proven they can consistently fall in groupthink, more deeply than the fraudster they fight, because they think they are honest. As the Groupthink theory explain, this feeling to be on the side of Good, allow them to break all rules of ethic than they battle for, like faking result, spreading fallacies, refusing to admit errors...
Not a surprise since groupthink is based on sincerity hiding interest, by opposition to fraud which is a selfish manipulation, with total awareness of the unreality of the claims.
The book of Charles Beaudette, "Excess Heat" (Published as PDF by the author on uni Tsinghua) is the exact antithesis of Huizenga logic. It is a book not of physicist, but of engineering, of chemistry. It respect measurements above theory, and explains when the real cognitive cause of the Cold Fusion tragedy : few Outspoken Nuclear Physicist, sons of Manhattan Project, who could not admit calorimetry (where they were incompetent) was an evidence, and theory (their best asset) was wrong.
Huizenga is a key actor in post WW2 epistemology, led by nuclear physicist way of mind.
His claims that experiments that cannot be reproduced reliably in few weeks should be considered null, that when an evidence contradict knows facts it is necessarily an artifact or if not possible, a fraud, is a key position to understand 60 years of modern science.
As such he was a man of his time, a man born in Manhattan project, and raised by government funded big physics, and US academics.
His world had nothing to compare with the experimental, unreliable, less funded, less reliable, less recognized , world of chemistry.
It is too bad he will not see the fruit of his whole life, of his efforts to enforce what he have believed in with passion.
I hope that now he can met Fleischmann and they can discuss and make experiments, having more time... Time, haste, pressure, then commitment in what was said with too much haste, was part of the problem...
Sure Huizenga, like Taubes, Fleischmann, Beaudette, Mallove, Lewis, Hansen, Morrison, McKubre, Miles, Bockris, Rossi have a place in the books of 21st century schoolbooks about academic science pathologies, in chemistry, engineering, management and physics books.
All of them participated to one of the most fascinating sociological error since the Chinese Emperor ordered to burn all the treasury boats.
Whatever is your position, convinced or denying : sure this story is a tragedy, and sure Huizenga was one of the most decisive actor (with Fleischmann, Lewis, Taubes, Rossi).
Published on 31 Jan 2014 By AlainCo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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The desire for the LENR companies to communicate seems to grow every week.
Yesterday, OilPrice published an interview of Alexandros Xanthoulis, the CEO and founder of Defkalion.
Xanthoulis does not make huge announces but repeat and precise what they already stated.
One key information that they plan to deliver a pre-industrial prototype on the 2nd quarter of 2014, ready for certifications. Less optimistic than planning sales for Q3... I expect certification problems for such a new "voodoo science" technology as the skeptic will name it. Anyway Alexandros remind us that they don't think as scientits, but as a company, and that "seeing is believing" and they plan to convince the skeptics with that method, and not with papers.
Alexandros explain that the initially target small scale application for home and light industry, but they are open for new development. They plan to make research for new applications.
He confirms their economic model based on selling regional licenses. As exception to that strategy plan a factory in Greece.
He also gives an estimated cost of 7000$/5500Euro for the unit, heat at 0.01$/kW, and a lifespan unrestricted for the reactor, provided it is maintained.
The project to go public was not discussed. Maybe was it a daydream of Xanthoulis, or it is in process discretely... Not the first time they change their strategy. No more discussion of the test, except for the "seeing is believing" which may be their last strategy to pass over pathological skepticism.
No news from their partnership with Defkalion Europe, nor comments on the measurements problems identified in Milan demo by Luca Gamberale.
The interview seems more prepared than previous by ToVima, and there is less enthusiastic announces. They don't commit on dates of sales, only on date of prototype delivery.
I expect certification will raise many questions to western societies... Certification will be the moment the denialist will have to surrender or launch their last battle.
The economics is very interesting, but as long as electricity is not produced it is not a short term revolution.
Published on30 Jan 2014 By AlainCo (email@example.com)
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The recent article of EnergyCatalyzer3.com on McKubre interview revealed that he was asked to test LENR reactors technology.
One of the top cold fusion researchers, Dr. Michael McKubre of SRI or the Stanford Research Institute; said he has tested between 12 and 15 low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) technologies for the United States government. If that wasn’t enough, McKubre said his team was able to replicate at least five of those technologies.
This is a preview ofLeading Researcher Says he has replicated at Least Five LENR technologies for US Government Admits working for DARPA.
This very interesting article question what is the awareness and strategy of US DoD/DARPA and the US military labs and agencies.
Historically one of the first military lab was China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center, led by Melvin Miles, who reported not only anomalous heat bu also He4 correlated to the heat (1996). Miles, thanks to the courage of the management facing the physics lords of real Science, was thanked by being moved to the stock and decided to retire. (for description of his work, there are paper on LENR-canr.org, and nice explanation in the book Excess Heat of Charles Beaudette). (Note that his He4/Heat correlation was a collaboration with Benjamin Bush of Univ. Texas Austin, done in double blind.hard to challenge for honest critic.)
They achieved interesting results, with co-deposition electrolysis and CR39 particles detection, filed patents, and produced 2 dozen of peer-reviewed papers. Sadly LENR research have been closed at SPAWAR in 2011 after the boss changed. Results are anyway still there, and on one side Pamela Boss is still active on the academic Scene, while few former member of the lab work in a startup "Global Energy Corporation" to develop a LENR-fission hybrid reactor called GeNiE.
Currently very active is the US navy Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which works with SRI and Italian new energy agency ENEA. They cross-replicates experiments, and failed to replicate Mitsubishi and Toyota experiments. Some noticed that this failure to replicate, with claims of very abnormal contamination after a visit, could be interpret as either fraud of Mitsubishi researcher Iwamura side (however replicated, by Toyota), or by a strange war to decredibilize Japanese achievement.
This anecdotal point is not to forget since it may spot a real an serious war to maintain US domination on energy, thus on LENR. An open question, but to keep in mind when observing facts. After all, E. Snowden leaks on PRISM mostly proved that US homeland security resources were used mostly of industrial spying, which is a more intelligent use of public money in my opinion.
This is where you will notice the proximity between SRI, and military labs, either from NRL or for DARPA replication as McKubre describe them. Is SRI a military lab, working for US energy independence ? Not officially, but US government is used to delegate mission to competent private actors, and why not using a competent lab to maintain US leadership in energy. It would be intelligent.
DARPA itself is publicly funding LENR research, including collaboration with ENEA, but hides that under funny terms looking like nanotechnology...
Description: The Fundamentals of Nanoscale and Emergent Effects and Engineered Devices program seeks to understand and exploit physical phenomena for developing more efficient and powerful devices. This includes developing devices and structures to enable controllable photonic devices at multiple wavelengths, engineering palladium microstructures with large deuterium loadings to study absorption thermodynamics and effects, enabling real-time detection as well as analysis of signals and molecules and origin of emergent behavior in correlated electron devices, and developing stabilization and scale-up methods to fabricate high pressure crystal structures at low pressures.
I imagine that part of the funding is for NRL, but I have not found evidence. As McKubre say, it also goes to SRI...
Now, let's go back in time in 2009 and look at an interesting document, a memo of Defense Inteligence Agency (DIA-08-0911-003) :
In 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced that their electrochemical experiments had produced excess energy under standard temperature and pressure conditions. 6 Because they could not explain this physical phenomenon based on known chemical reactions, they suggested the excess heat could be nuclear in origin. However, their experiments did not show the radiation or radioactivity expected from a nuclear reaction. Many researchers attempted to replicate the results and failed, As a result, the physics community disparaged their work as lacking credibility, and the press mistakenly dubbed it "cold fusion." Related research also suffered from the negative publicity of cold fusion for the past 20 years, but many scientists believed something important was occurring and continued their research with little or no visibility. For years, scientists were intrigued by the possibility of producing large amounts of clean energy through LENR, and now this research has begun to be accepted in the scientific community as reproducible and legitimate.
The conclusion is quite heretic compared to Wikipedia/SciAm consensus. But that is not the most shocking for a consensus true-believer:
Although much skepticism remains, LENR programs are receiving increased support worldwide, including state sponsorship and funding from major corporations. DIA assesses that Japan and Italy are leaders in the field, although Russia, China, Israel, and India I are devoting significant resources to this work in the hope of finding a new clean energy source....
So now, what can we imagine ?
One possibility is to interpret the labs working on LENR, the DARPA funding, as local decision by very few open-mind decision makers, tolerated by the establishment as sometime crazy decision are valuable. This is the concept of "Senior Fellow" that you find in some company like IBM, people having total freedom in their budget because they have proven they were smart, yet uncommon. Budget are short but last as long as the boss last.
Another possibility is that some group of aware decision makers, are perfectly conscious like us, about the importance of that technology. they however are absolutely conscious that this research is heretical and that politicians will never take the risk to be ridiculed by academics mindguards. So they have a strategy to stay discrete. Few labs are supported, funded. Beside that some black-ops are launched, to discredit non -US competitors, to steal some secrets.
What shocked me in McKubre speech, is that he have tested many reactor technology, including some which are normally protected. Don't imagine that Defkalion, Nichenergy, Rossi, have shared their IP with Brillouin, euh... with SRI? At the same time I know there are some black-ops, by spies or by academics, to steal intellectual properties from non-US companies.
None of my hypothesis are fully coherent, and there is even less evidence, but we have not to forget we live in a new geostrategy because of LENR.
Whoever is aware of LENR impact on economic, on the global balance of power, should, should know they have to have a strategy to stay dominant, or opportunities to became dominance.
What looks strange today, is maybe simply the new Cold War of Cold Fusion...
And please no oil conspiracy... That is not what the strange facts shows.
Published on 28th January 2014 By AlainCo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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This project is described as such :
The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential vehicle performance impact of applying the emergent Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) technology to aircraft propulsion systems. ... The objectives of this project are to gather as many perspectives as possible on how and where to use a very high density energy source for aircraft including the benefits arising from its application, explore the performance impacts to aircraft, and evaluate potential propulsion system concepts.
Seen alone, it is a huge surprise, but this project was already presented at NASA Seedling 2013, where he was awarded $150k for 12 month up to end of January 2014.
On NASA site, his experience is described as so:
Douglas Wells research interests include the study of aircraft design, aerodynamics, unconventional configurations, personal air vehicles, and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Currently, Wells is the technical monitor for the Boeing SUGAR Phase 2 Truss-Braced Wing Concept Studies and Exploration task. He performed technical assessments for the subsonic Fixed-Wing Project Phase 1 and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project Phase 1 contractor’s advanced concepts.
His project is anyway following others NASA project is done, and there is an article about it's content.
The most interesting for LENR supporters is the SUGAR joint study between Boeing and NASA, trying to study feasibility of low emission planes of various design, including LENR propelled commercial planes.
They proposed two designs of LENR plane, one hybrid-LENR-Electric for transition, and one full LENR which is technologically more demanding.
Analyzing the reports on LENR-Forum we can extract the key requirements to implement commercial LENR plane :
- With LENR only engine (even for take-off/landing) the needs are (section 3.0 page 24)
- Heat engine > 1HP/lb (1600W/kg)
- LENR reactor>3.5HP/lb (5700W/kg)
- with an hybrid electric engine the contraints relax to:
- 0.4HP/lb (660W/kg)
- LENR reactor 1HP/lb (1600W/kg)
- batteries 225Wh/kg
From study of the markets, it seems we are not far from feasibility of Hybrid LENR plane:
- Some innovative turbine like Cyclone WHE are above 1000W/kg, but without condensers... Using the plane as radiator may be an idea...
- Commercial batteries like Nissan LEAF packs, are below the target, but innovative batteries are proposed above 400Wh/kg... and there is huge progress since 2012.
- LENR reactors like Defkalion, are a little too heavy from their specification, but from their demo of R5 reactor, a new generation of optimized reactor will reach the target.
So the project of Doug Wells is not extreme futurism, but more like a feasibility study before launching a serious projects, asking manufacturers to deliver performing components : lightweight LENR reactors, turbines, and accumulators.
Currently hybrid electric planes are studied by others companies, like this EADS hybrid gas-electric plane.
Superconducting Distributed propulsion - many small engines that are integrated with the airframe for radically different airplanes
Advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gasdriven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA’s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.
Another group, working with NASA, propose an electric aitrcraft for 150 passengers without superconductors.
Hyper fuel efficient 150 Person electric aircraft doable without superconductors and just todays technology
ESAero,studied hybrid propulsion systems, became convinced that conventional, non-superconducting electrical systems could be made to work in a large aircraft. It was funded by NASA Ames to take the ECO-150 concept and rework it around ambient-temperature generator and motor technology available to meet NASA's 2020-25 timeframe N+2 goals (40% less fuel used, lower emissions and lower noise).
To the evident surprise of both ESAero and NASA, the N+2 ECO-150 design closed - met its requirements - despite having a significantly heavier turboelectric distributed-propulsion system using technology available today in industries outside aerospace. "Our main interest was could we even get the aircraft to close, and the answer is yes," says Gibson.
It will takes time, as it seems to be a big problem for engineers, but it is no more the domain of futurology and science.
Published on 28th January 2014 By AlainCo (email@example.com)
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The recent news announcing that "Industrial Heat Has Acquired Andrea Rossi's E-Cat Technology" is causing many reaction.
It is following the "coming -out" of the R&D consortium of Swedish energy companies, who after having funded the Levi&al test, have published a small article on E-Cat in their corporate magazine Elforsk Perspektiv, and even a report on LENR research. Those moves, despite their importance have not been relayed by media.
Industrial Heat acquisition of E-Cat technology seems more inspiring. Some like me feel that this is an important step proving the reality of Andrea Rossi LENR technology.
Of course, some long time anti-LENR media, probably feeling their holy mission is to protect the peasant and the widow from evil scam artist, express their doubt on the E-Cat technology. Freedom of speech protect opinions, conspiracy theories, but there is legal limits.
The article of Popular Science passed over that limit by stating :
The device was created by Italian inventor Andrea Rossi, a convicted scam artist who... [emphasis added]
It is referring to the failure of Rossi's company "Petroldragon" and the fate of "Omar Refinery". The affair was very complex, with Rossi initially considered as a hero of recycling, then as an environmental criminal when his business get stopped, with the wastes to clean. There are many opinion, many version of the story. On LENR-Forum tried to gather data to rebuild the story, using press articles, and biography.
What is sure is that finally, at the second appeal, the judge decided, that there was no reality in the accusation, because they were based on retroactive application of laws.
Rossi get jailed later shortly for tax evasion (during DoD thermoelectric project), visibly trying to escape from the bankruptcy caused by the procedure, which finally was dismissed. The press article (translated) tell that :
Andrea Rossi Acquitted of Recycling toxic waste
The prosecutor had asked for a sentence of three years and a half Silvia Underwire: polluter gets away
MILAN - Acquittal "because the fact does not exist" for Andrea Rossi, accused of conspiracy to commit money laundering of toxic and hazardous waste, piled in the 80"'s between Hoofddorp and Lacchiarella. This story Rossi was arrested in 1995, when claimed to be able to turn that waste into oil. He remained in jail six months. In this process, the prosecutor had asked for a sentence of three years and six months. This is the third acquittal, the other two had obtained at Monza and Ariano Irpino, where they were transferred to two sections of 'investigation. After years of investigation and controversy, Rossi was finally sanctioned only for minor events related to non-compliance with the authorizations he had obtained for the disposal of waste. Appeal is still pending in the trial for fraudulent bankruptcy due to the collapse of Omar, the company that took over from Petrol Dragon refinery Lacchiarella and meant to be distilled waste: for this process, in 2000, Andrea Rossi was sentenced to summary proceedings by the Gup Milan to eight years in prison. To rehabilitate approximately 70,000 tons of waste accumulated in 'system, in ten years the Lombardy Region has paid about € 41 million. 'L' acquittal of Rossi clearly shows how the principle of "polluter pays" principle is often applied in reverse: the polluter earns and gets away with it, "said Silvia Underwire Clementi, regional director of An. G. Gua.
(27 November 2004) - Corriere della Sera
The press is very negative against him, and depending on the point of view you see him as an irresponsible entrepreneur, or a victim of mafia controlled authorities...
The point is that Andrea Rossi is not a "CONVICTED SCAM ARTIST". The accusations were about environmental crime. Only the mayor claimed it did not produce oil, and you have to trust an Italian politician to trust those assertions without confirmation.
Technically, PopSci committed a clear defamation.
How can a journalist, claim such erroneous facts without fear of a defamation case ? How can the chief editor let that happen ? Why is it not already corrected with an excuse?
Maybe the secret is hidden in Groupthink diagnostic on Wikipedia :
Type I: Overestimations of the group — its power and morality
- Illusions of invulnerability creating excessive optimism and encouraging risk taking.
- Unquestioned belief in the morality of the group, causing members to ignore the consequences of their actions.
Type II: Closed-mindedness
- Rationalizing warnings that might challenge the group's assumptions.
- Stereotyping those who are opposed to the group as weak, evil, biased, spiteful, impotent, or stupid.
Type III: Pressures toward uniformity
- Self-censorship of ideas that deviate from the apparent group consensus.
- Illusions of unanimity among group members, silence is viewed as agreement.
- Direct pressure to conform placed on any member who questions the group, couched in terms of "disloyalty"
- Mindguards— self-appointed members who shield the group from dissenting information.
I don't see any other rational reason for journalists and mainstream scientific magazine, to endanger their finance and their credibility by such irresponsible act, whatever is their opinion.
Maybe you have better explanation, I have no other : They are in groupthink.
Will Andrea Rossi launch a defamation case ? Who knows...
Published on 27th January 2014 By AlainCo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Discuss about that article on LENR-forum.com
Ce jeudi 6 février A 18 heures, à Marseille, Jean-Paul Biberian va donner une conférence sur la fusion froide, sous le patronage de la Société Française de l’Energie Nucléaire.
Plusieurs personnes du CEA et de AREVA seront présentes.
Voici l'adresse de la conférence:
'La Fusion Froide"
Amphithéâtre Jean Pastor
Faculté de Pharmacie
27 Bd Jean Moulin 13005 Marseille
This article is an executive summary which gather the key information on LENR industrial development, with the various actors and their history.
After reading that executive summary,
- You can read an English summary about the scientific evidences of LENR that I've written to complete that one.
- The book "Excess Heat" of "Charles Beaudette" (Buy it rather) is one of the best book on the subject, and just the first chapters may be enough to explain where are the key pathology in Cold Fusion coverage by physicists, journals and media.
- To complete the book of Beaudette, that article answer to recent critics by Kirk Shanahan, explaining the quality of the work of Miles, McKubre, SPAWAR, Iwamura, and extending the range of critics debunking to more recent claims.
- About scientific evidences Jed Rothwell have written an article for wikipedia on LENR/cold Fusion on, which address even better the scientific controversy question, give quotes.
- You may also read the "Student's Guide to Cold Fusion " by Mickael McKubre,
- To understand the epistemological and sociological context of those articles I advise you to read the book "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" by Thomas Kuhn. This is a must to read, that explain very naturally what happen with LENR. This article summarize the book.
- I also advise to read "Antifragile" by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (
- I have tried in that article to interpret Taleb philosophy on LENR/cold fusion case.
- or this french/english thesis about the faculties of innovators.
- About groupthink and collective delusion, you will find in that article a description of Groupthink, that you could match to cold fusion history.
- Roland Benabou published a model, and explain some counter-intuitive observed facts in "GroupThink : Collective denial in Organizations and Markets" (slides , Patterns of denials).
Les francophones peuvent lire
- la version initiale en français, relativement obsolète.
- et éventuellement aussi un article sur les preuves scientifiques des LENR traduit en frOOnçais.
- Vous pouvez aussi lire les transparents (Powerpoint, ou PDF) préparés par Tyler van Houwelingen et traduit gentiment par Rémy André.
- Pour mieux comprendre les divers comportements, il peut être utile de lire cette thèse sur les facultés de l'inventeur,
- ou cette synthèse sur "La structure des révolutions scientifiques" par Thomas Kuhn.
- Voici aussi une tentative de décliner la philosophie de Nassim Nicholas Taleb sur le cas de la fusion froide/LENR
What is LENR, Cold Fusion
The LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) is a more technical term for this so-called Cold Fusion.
These effects are observed at conventional temperatures (60° C-1500° C), which suggest a nuclear origin, and in any case much more energy than chemistry (50 to 1000 times more than chemicals). However it does not look like the fusion of stars, or the fission in nuclear reactors. There is almost no radioactivity, no radioactive waste, no stellar temperature ...
The word cold fusion seems there an abuse, but we are not sure really.
It officially begun around 1989 with Fleischmann & Pons experiments : an electrolysis of heavy water (deuterium) with palladium electrodes, impregnated with deuterium... Some have also electrolyzed heavy or light water, with similar metals that absorb hydrogen (forming hydride or deuterides). Results are varying, moreover sporadic, and depending on the products. A family of experiments was to make high-current electrolysis producing a plasma in water. Experiments were also made with metal films permeated by hydrogen or deuterium gas, powders, wires , often heated, electrically or indirectly (several hundred degrees).
This is the subject of controversy, which is not extinguished. Some experiments done in the first 6 weeks of awareness in 1989, have officially discredited this area, but logical and methodological problems were identified which removes any relevance today. Since then many experiments, varied and sometimes well replicated, leave no doubt today. There is still a difficulties to publish in journals with peer review, but some have succeeded. There are criticisms, but obviously less and less serious.
The results are highly variable, but we understand better and better the causes of failures. Those causes account for most failures which have convinced the community that did not work (insufficient loading, surface condition, temperature, impurities, poisoning) ... A key seems to be the notion of active site poorly understood, but clearly linked to the surface and the crystallographic state of the surface, partially determined by impurities.
The effects depend on the reagents, but there are in the classical case heat generation. Total produced energy sometimes exceeds by several orders of magnitude, what chemistry, even unknown chemistry, could release with chemical bonds, and even with extreme crystals dislocations. It is therefore a nuclear reactions, or else more incredible things.
There was also observed transmutations, or radiation. It seems that the transmutation observed are related to the production of heat, but the radiation (gamma or neutron, small but measurable) are anti-correlated with the heat.
Among the most convincing results, there is correlation between the production of helium and heat in the classical experiments (palladium-deuterium). This type of experiments can refute doubts about calorimetry and gas detection, because errors have no reason to correlate. There are also experiments in production, and strangely consumption , of tritium (USA, India).
Among the most tested experiments, and despite a better understanding, there is an erratic success rate, which however can exceed 50%, if like ENEA you control crystallographic and chemical state of the metal. Some experiments (Navy SPAWAR, NANOR) get perfect reproducibility by controlling the surface structure of the metal.
We can make connection with the first results obtained with Germanium, erratic and whose observations were often neglected, rejected and ignored ... Again uncontrolled contamination and surface created conditions so variable that the results were undeniable and unpredictable.
There are theories, some that challenge existing theories (hydrinos, zero point energy, super-gravity...), and others who rely on the usual quantum physics, but assuming collective quantum mechanism, comparable to what is found in LASER or superconductivity (Widom-Larsen, Kim-Zubarev, Takahashi, Brillouin, Defkalion, ...) ... The most recent theories are rather conservative, although clearly lacks some keys.
For twenty years the results , compelling, sometimes huge, but erratic and unusable, discouraged research in this area. Some, such as CEA, CNAM, EPRI has stopped all work, but others like Toyota, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, ENEA, NASA, the U.S. Navy SPAWAR, continued discreetly and more or less steadily ...
Recently researchers (Miley, Piantelli, Celani, Focardi, ...) followed a stranger path, yet ultimately successful, involving light hydrogen with nickel, at high temperature, and using nano-structured materials (micron powders, nanoscale treated foams, nanoscale treated wires).
Despite the difficulties, there is a body of a thousand refereed articles published in journals and about 8 LENR "review". The most recognized is that of Edmund Storms, published in 2010 in Naturwissenschaften. This article, like most articles on the subject is available freely at LENR-CANR.org managed by Jed Rothwell, and reading it is very instructive.
What concrete impact
Fuel density for LENR is huge, comparable to that observed for nuclear. Materials (hydrogen, nickel) are among the most common on earth, and their cost is negligible.
The need for nickel (if consumed, which is not certain) corresponds to a percent of current production, for all the world's energy. Following prices given by Rossi or Defkalion, manufactured fuel prices remain very low, and in the end it would be the price of the reactor and above all of the the turbines that will determine the price of energy. The essential parameter will be the installed capacity and not the consumption. The bill would be divided by ten. The investment cost would match roughly 6 months of total GDP for the transition.
LENR reactors do not produce significant radiation, and can be installed in the building of the heat consumer, or even one day in the appliance itself.
Conversion to electricity will be more expensive via turbines or thermoelectric converters, but the need for electricity will decrease because there will be no need to heat electrically. Moreover, most industrial installations or domestic rather use most energy as heat.
Energy is 10% of our global spending, so we just hope a productivity shock of this order. We can even expect better because various pollution, constraints and annoyances will disappear. Smokes, soot, CO2 will disappear from chimneys, and even cars. Geo-strategy will relax with the end of vital oil with high prices, and therefore military spending.
Ability to produce energy locally will make the grid less vital, and the grid will be used to share and optimize infrastructure for local production. Smart-grid should be a strategic element of the electric revolution.
In the end we could imagine having LENR home boilers with a CHP mode, without cutting the grid that would serve to spread peak demand. More specific generators could be installed in the city or district, to complete.
In the countryside, people would buy a generator pair, rather than paying a line of several kilometers. In the villages, we would share a generator.
The clothe iron, like ovens or washing machines will have a small reactor for heating, or even a thermoelectric converters so no more any need to plug it.
Cars, trucks could travel 5 years without recharging, and in the garage or parking, they could provide the power they don't need to the neighbors, and maybe create a micro-economy of electricity.
Civilian or military, sea or air ships would not have to refuel, except for the crew.
Planes won't adapt easily, but there will be LENR hybrid-electric airplanes, then pure LENR ...
In poor countries, cold fusion could cause a revolution. You can cite for example desalination, but simply pumping services, pollution remediation, agricultural machinery, comfort, access to digital ....
More than applications and cost, it should be noted that this type of reactor requires a very light and local infrastructure. It costs little and mostly work. Poor countries suffer specifically today of national governance and logistics issues. The LENR could, bypassing the poor technical and policy infrastructure, allow development at the right level of local government.
Companies around LENR
It is on this breakthrough, finally giving hope of useful power and good control, that innovative companies offering to develop and commercialize soon cold fusion reactors, bloomed, followed closely by companies wanting to develop specific applications, politely watched by some large companies which are positioning themselves.
The creators of reactors
Andrea Rossi is a controversial industrialist and inventor. He is known to have created a process to transform waste into fuel, set up a business, which collapsed after a change of regulation about waste, with various legal matters. The process seems to be used in the USA today. Meanwhile, he had proposed to the U.S. Department of Defense to develop thermoelectric converters more efficient, with a failure as result...
2010-2011 he announced to have developed a Nickel-Hydrogen cold fusion reactor , the "e-catalyzer".
It was targeted toward the individual market, but Rossi changed strategy to focus on industrial version. Beginning of 2012 he announced he was developing a high temperature version (Hot-Cat, 1000°C) of the reactor, which would be much more efficient. He announced also having developed a gas version. Its electric reactors are able to officially produce 6 times more heat than power in, and gas version 3 times more than gas heating. The advertised price at a time that was around 1000 euro to 10kW, with some ten euro for re-charge ... the industrial price will be higher, but comparable.
It is a crazy character who until 2013 usually made thundering announcements.
He announced the results of tests that are expected, and in the meantime he has successfully launched controversies on internal testing, and may have discouraged a Swedish partner.
Nevertheless, he has partners. Some, such as the German partner seem not serious. Others, like the Swedish partner Hydrofusion seemed a little cold, but were positive in a publicly Swedish documentary spent early 2013. Others like Defkalion Green technologies were disgusted, and now fly on their own.
It is fortunately "Prometeon", the Italian partner, which is headed by Aldo Proia. This executive has a serious profile (a former project manager for solar projects) seems supported by serious investors. His interview confirmed the whimsical side of Rossi, but also clearly state that hides his success, and that his reactor works very well.
Until recently it was the only serious guaranty of Rossi, but a good guaranty, when you read his career.
In 2012-2013 e-cat reactor have been tested by an independent Swedish/Italian team, funded by Elforsk, an organization of energy companies, who propose since may 2013 a draft paper on arXiv. This paper seems solid, but some imagine conspiracy and magicians tricks despite credibility.
In June 2013 Hydrofusion published a call for a "pilot client", proposing to take all the installation and maintenance cost (late fall 2013) for using it as a showcase pilot plant.
In September 2013 Rossi said that they will launch a long campaign of test during probably one year, and that they will only talk about it when completed and documented. It should be published by the testers in scientific journals. The wait will be long.
In January 2013, thanks to E-cat world community, the link between E-cat technology and Cherokee fund, which control Industrial Heat LLC, and with Baoding Sino-US Science and Technology Innovation Park where Nickel-Hydrogen LENR Energy is presented.
On Jan 24 2014, Industrial Heat LLC officialy announced they have acquired E-cat technology, after having participated the Levi&al (Elforsk funded) test, and validated performances with independent experts. Thay announced they failed patents to protect E-cat IP.
Aldo Proia of Prometeon wish them good luck and announce they are still partner for Italy.
Industrial Heat LLC
This company is the owner of E-cat technology. It is funded by Cherokee fund, and have been cited publicly in China for Nickel-Hydrogen Energy joint project.
This company was founded by Greek expatriates investors, many from Vancouver, Canada. It was originally intended to operate a license of Rossi's E-cat. Initially Professor Stremmenos, friends of Rossi, Greek Ambassador in Italy had presented some of his friends in PASOC , like Papaandreou. But after the first contacts and first positive tests meeting, advised by some scientists, they abandoned the idea. A few weeks later, Alexandros Xanthoulis, Greek economist living in Vancouver, came with various investors to operate an E-cat license ... Rossi promised the Canadian license, and changed his intention. Defkalion under pressure from Canadian-based investors breached the contract by claiming a lack of operating time of the E-cat, in summer of 2011. Therefore Stremmenos has reacted very badly to what he perceived as a betrayal of Rossi by Defkalion. He never ceases to denigrate Defkalion since, as he elsewhere denigrate Piantelli another competitor of Rossi.
The R & D team then proposed to try to make a reactor on their own. They tested various methods, some similar to Rossi, but ultimately only one to allow good control involved the production of a plasma with electric spark-plugs in a reactor containing hydrogen and a nickel foam. End of November 2011, Defkalion announced a prototype and preliminary specifications.
Reactor power was in the 45kW for estimated 5000 euro, and a few hundred euro for annual maintenance.
Discussions with developers on their forum suggests competent , and somewhat excited engineers. Alexandros Xanthoulis communication also leaves a feeling of enthusiasm, which opposes his obviously very "corporate" style.
In January 2012 they announced a call for testing by third parties, which would lead to a result in late April 2012 ... But things have been delayed. In the summer during the annual National Instruments 2012 and the ICCF17 they presented a paper describing their results, some transmutations, outline of their methods, but not yet third-party results. They also explained that they had endurance problems with spark-plugs that explained some delays. They also discussed about 6 patents on various points.
They also announced that their partners refused to work with them in Greece because of the collapse of the country, and they were moving to Canada in Vancouver.
In November 2012 they published a badly anonymized report, directed by Michael A. Nelson, a researcher at NASA, working here for an NGO about alternative energy. Nelson had made about him in lambasting the testing protocol, and especially the behavior, of Rossi during his tests. In contrast, with Defkalion he seemed to enjoy the freedom during reactor test. The result was modest (+200% of energy compared to additional input, but with justifications related to the low temperature of operation).
December 2012, Defkalion moved to Vancouver for 3 years, and an article in an important Greek magazine ("To Vima") presents this new company, its technology and projects. According to the article, they were approached by almost all developed countries have dozens of partners and contacts for varied transport applications . Oil company seem quite positive towards them. The company reactivated its website in February 2013 and get out slowly from his silence.
Peter Gluck, published an interview with Yeong E. Kim of Purdue, where he claim having met Defkalion, seen a demo, discussed about their respective theoretical position theory, and where he show intention to collaborate. Note that Yeong Kim theory (Kim-Zubarev) have been the subject of simulation during a collaboration with National Instruments (as reported by Stefano Concezzi in 2012 conference in Brussels and Rome). Later, as planned, during ICCF18 Yeong E Kim presented more detail on Defkalion reactor, and his theoretical proposal based on Defkalion data.
During ICCF18 Defkalion also broadcast two demonstration organized July 22nd and 23rd in Milan, in Defkalion Europe, with an Italian Skeptic Society invited, and transmission via a web TV to ICCF18. The demonstration was done in their lab, with their instruments, but with visible opennesss and allowing observers to look and touch. However Luca Gamberale report some discrepancies in measurement to be corrected. Due to busy planning it will be done only in September, and meanwhile he froze commercial relation with potential clients.
As said by Luca Gamberale, the test was not definitive, and just shown their open behavior and self-confidence. The test , depending on bias and options taken (optimistic, paranoid, conservative), can be interpreted of evidence of fraud, technical trouble, weak-performance, self-confidence, or huge performance.
Beginning of August, Defklalion have been interviewed by ToVima.gr newspaper announce that they prepare to go public on Toronto Stock Exchange for mid-October 2013. They will have to disclose the name of their partners, licensee, and probably third-party testing results. This public intent shows they feel serious, but experience in innovative enterprise and around LENR push us to be careful, and prepare for extreme opposition and Murphy's laws consequence.
End of November 2013 Defkalion answered to Franck Ackland that they were reorganizing their R&D, commissioning a new reactor, and that there will be no news until mid January. Before Christmas Defkalion announced that they "completed a first phase of R&D for the basic reactor", moved inside their building in Vancouver, and have offices in Athens.
Yeong E. Kim who presented Defkalion reactor at ICCF18 with Defkalion CTO, was hired by a turbine maker, Cyclone Power, because of his competence in LENR physics. Nothing says it is related to Defkalion, but it would be logical if Cyclone was a partner with Defkalion.
End of 2013, Defkalion announced on their website that they moved their office inside the same building in Vancouver, opened offices in Athens. They said they were commissioning a new reactor, finishing the R&D phase.
Early 2014 they announces that they are finishing the heat management and control for the pre-industrial prototype. They says they are doing "robust calorimetry" avoiding criticized water calorimetry. They say that several third party will publish their results (when?). they expect commercialization on 3rd quarter 2014...
The huge problem is that since summer 2013, Defkalion never addressed the question raised by Luca Gamberale. None of their announce seems backed up by facts. The nly fact is the report of Mickael Nelson, who confirm but repeat the results were preliminary.
Brillouin Corporation is headed by Robert Godes. They announced the creation of a reactor based on a theory (using the "Brillouin zones") developed by Godes. Their first reactor, wet, has been validated by the SRI with indisputable performance ("+100%") but still not usable". They work with the SRI, a non-profit research center aimed at developing local industry around Stanford, who did the tests. They develop a new "dry" reactor with better performance.
Godes is quite critical about Rossi and Defkalion, who he accused of not understanding how to activate the reaction. He says that his theory gives him the ability to control the reaction at will.
In September 2013 Robert Godes was interviewed. He claim having presented test engineers to NRL and Google. Their patent attorneys are paid in equities, evidence of their trust in the economic model. The COP is only 3 for the low temperature reactor. They claim/expect a COP of 100 at 600C for a hot reactor. They have raised $3 million, but have a conditional agreement of $20 million (Investor is Sunrise Securities). It is conditioned on testing of they Hot tube reactor by SRI, then a successful retrofit of an existing 5-10MW power plant. No report of such test yet. Godes also claimed a visit of Nicolas Chauvin of LENR-cars and LENR-invest, who when questioned did not deny.
End of 2013 Robert Godes told to Sterling allan that they were funded by a South Korean licensee, and that they planned production end of 2014. He says that SRI, spearheaded by McKubre is testing they HHT hot reactor.
Blacklight Power is a company that aims to develop reactors using the "hydrinos" theory of Mills . This theory is highly controversial because it challenges the current physics.
They have recently announced managed to develop hydrinos reactors producing electricity directly without thermodynamics conversion . The device is been discussed in reports by some individual researchers who observed it and confirm it works.
Direct electrical conversion is a great hope, but the fact that this phenomenon has not been reproduced by others may leave us skeptical. Recent report of electromagnetic field by Rossi and Defkalion let that question open.
In January 2014 they published an announce about a show for the end on January 2014.
Great caution is required before clear evidence is presented.
Lenuco is a company created to commercialize the technology Dr. Miley. Its first application is the replacement of radioisotope generator of spacecraft for NASA.
Lenuco has since applied to ARPA-E funding for a 10kW home co-generator, but failed.
Miley have applied a patent for his NiH co-generator.
NanorTech (ex Jet Energy)
NanorTech (initiallyJet Energy) is a company which is currently trying to commercialize Professor Hagelstein NANOR. During ICCF17 they explained the importance of this small device the size of a resistor, capable of producing 10 times more energy than it receives (40-80 was claimed later in January 2013 during IAP courses at MIT), for laboratories seeking to understand and validate the cold fusion. At ICCF18 they announced huge improvement through variable magentic fied, and their renaming as "Nanortech" to commercialize Nanor.
Nichenergy is a company created by Piantelli to sell Nickel-Hydrogen reactor technology , based on his work. We have little information.
A patent by Piantelli, recently granted for a reactor using nickel powder, drew criticism from Rossi and his friends Stremmenos.
Etiam Oy is a discrete small company, which filed a patent late 2011, which was granted summer 2013. This patent seems serious, and the inventor have an interesting CV in R&D. Patent is not evidence, but Etiam Oy (alias Etiam Inc.) may surprise us.
University of Missouri and Energetics Technologies
Robert Duncan a boss of the University of Missouri had agreed to expertise on behalf of CNBC and its "60 minutes" show, the claims of cold fusion of an Israeli company : "Energetics Technologies." Initially skeptical, he became since an active supporter.
The 2013 conference on cold fusion (ICCF18) was held in his university.
Since then the activity of LENR patents and Energetics Technologies was acquired by the university, which continues the in-house developments.
ICCF18 was sponsored by ENEA and National Instrument.
Robert Duncan move to a modest university in Texas. Since they hire his wife too, it seems not a sanction, but a desire to hire a professional who have developped University Of Missouri research program.
Startups companies, wishing to use the reactors
Besides the companies proposing to develop a reactor, others propose to use them to revolutionize some areas.
LENR Cars is a Swiss startup founded by a serial innovator: Nicolas Chauvin. It aims to create a car based on Cold Fusion, beginning first with an electric car hybridized with cold fusion, then developing less and less hybrid models.
Their first idea would be to put a cold fusion reactor in a Tesla-S, whose batteries are recharged by thermoelectric converters. He is currently working to replicate the work of Celani in the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project.
An article in the past AGEFI Geneva where we learn that it is funded by the founder of Logitech, who is also enthusiastic. They evoke discussions with automakers Tesla and PSA (Peugeot-Citroen). Another similar article in "Le Temps" reports some opposition of one EPFL hot-fusion physicist.
Robert Godes of Brillouin cited visit of Nicolas Chauvin, who when asked don't deny.
LENR-Cars was nominated for a local entrepreneurship prize (PERL) in Switzerland (Lausanne), and was selected by a (E)MBA school to host students for 2012-2013.
In november 2013 LENR-Cars applied for a contest "Future Energy Ultra Light Startup", and seems to have won the voting contest, and could be invited for an Arpa-E event. This follow two unsuccessful applications by George Miley of Lenuco. It seems they lose a second round of vote by "investors"...
Kresenn is a British startup aiming at developing autonomous data center with cold fusion. Its founders are Italian. They work with Celani.
They signed a partnership with LENR-Cities
LENR Cities is an initiative launched by Michel Vanderberghe (France) and Didier Pelluet (Switzerland), which aims to create a networks of innovative businesses, and to partner with local businesses, to be able to change the market and use energy at the local scale. This economic model is theorized under the title "The Business Factory."
Michel Vandenberghe joined the initiative Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project.
During spring 2013, LENR-Cities signed partnership with Kresenn, and with a new structure LENR-Invest. They announce that they are proposing their project in May to Neuchatel swiss district and city.
This new company is created to fund industrialist needing support and funding to industrialize LENR application.
It have a partnership with LENR-Invest.
This company is managed by Aldo Proia and is an official licensee of E-cat since 2012.
After Industrial Heat LLC announced they have acquired E-cat technology, Aldo Proia of Prometeon wish them good luck and announce they are still partner for Italy.
Large companies and agencies
In addition to these innovative small businesses, some large companies have a strategy that is leaking, when they don't fill the screen.
This company that sells electronic laboratory instruments recently called cold fusion as "guest star" for its annual conference, NIWeek 2012. : 4 presentations on Cold Fusion, a panel with reactor manufacturer (Brillouin, Defkalion) and researchers (Takahashi of Toyota / Technova), and a public demonstration of a small demonstration reactor by Celani. It all culminated with the conference of founder "Truchard," who announced the coming revolution, and how National Instrument was supporting those new "Edison".
Before NIWeek, Stefano Concezzi, the director of "Big Physics" (clients linked to heavy physics experiments like LHC, ITER, ...) gave a conference in Brussels and Rome, where he announced that his company have made double-blind replication of cold fusion experiments by ten laboratories, and that they were supporting cold fusion researchers.
This communication strategy, whereas cold fusion is an infinitesimal client for NI, suggests that this is a strategy to acquire an image of a pioneer in an industry that will soon no more be ostracized.
Unlike in 2012 next NIWeek2013 did host NO LENR presentation. They moved their strategy to sponsoring of ICCF18.
Dennis Cravens have been the only LENR presence, with some tiny experiments and some LENR-tea.
National Instruments is the sponsor of ICCF18, the international cold fusion conference. Truchard, the boss "James Truchard" will give a keynote conference at ICCF18. NI will organize a LabView workshops there.
Ubaldo Mastromatteo of STMicroelectronics Italy, is working since long on LENR.
ST Microelectronics has recently validated the work of Celani in his lab, and there was identified French employees of the company or subsidiary (STNewVentures) at a conference in Siena.
STMicro filed a patent early 2012 about method to design and control a LENR reactor, which seems matching their work on Celani wires. It is still pending. They already hold 2 other patents around LENR. Mastromatteo is inventor in each case, and STMicro own the patent.
When Fleischmann has been lynched by the scientific community, he was hired by Toyota. The results were not very interesting. But research continues in Japan, particularly in the Technova laboratory in Kobe where work Professor Takahashi.
Mitsubishi also continues to do research on cold fusion. One of his great results was performed by Iwamura: proof of transmutation during the permeation of hydrogen in thin films of metals. They presented the results at the American Nuclear Society this winter, end of 2012. Toyota researchers confirmed replication.
Italian and French company, oil exploration subsidiary of ENI, has been identified as present in a few Conference on Cold Fusion.
Shell was quoted as present at the workshop ICMNS in Siena in 2012.
Shell through its innovative "ShellGamechanger" would be interested in cold fusion after Defkalion in the last article of "To Vima" (a well known Greek newspaper - "The Tribune").
Exxon according to Defkalion in the article "To Vima" would be interested in acquiring a Defkalion, when the time comes ...
Some employees have been seen in LENR conference.
Elforsk is a swedish R&D consortium, organizing research and development for electric companies, industrialist of the domain, and public authorities. It funded and organized the independent test report of E-cat in 2012-2013.
In november 2013 Elforsk published a report about LENR landscape(in english), in which it detail various claims, various tests, with positive skepticism.
Professional body representing professional American electricity, has recently made a small test report positive but unconvincing on cold fusion.
This organization which brings together professional of nuclear industry invited Steven Krivit to present cold fusion and Widom-Larsen theory at its winter conference. Mitsubishi Heavy Industry also presented Iwamura results and confirmed replication by Toyota.
A new presentation was done late February 2013 by Miley and al.
NASA GRC have done some experiments in 1989 that give interesting results (gas permeation producing anomalous heat), but results were ignored because of incoherence with theory (no neutrons). Experiments were replicated later (2008) and few actors at NASA support it's reality in public (Nasa GRC site, Zawody,Bushnell, Melich,Nelson...).
NASA is funding a seedling project for a "Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft : Propulsion Airframe Integration" with Doug Wells affected on that project. This project will be presented at NASA Seedling 2014.
in December 2012 they launched a press-release announcing they hired Yeong E. Kim, LENR theoretical physicist, known for having presented a paper at ICCF18 with Defkalion CTO, or having cooperated with National Instruments in 2012 to check some numerical models of his BEC theory.
The president of cyclone thanked Nick Connor of The Energy Trust LLC for "his vision and bringing [them] together".
Energy Trust LLC
This trust manage oil and gas private equity funds. Cyclone Power thanked one of their employee "Nick Connor" (of Indian) for "his vision" and "bringing [Cyclone and Yeong E Kim] together".
No more information, and no data to confirm if that trust have any commitment in LENR.
No confirmation nor deny.
This fund is identified as the owner of Industrial Heat LLC and funder of some joint project in China around Nickel-Hydrogen Energy.
It seems to be funding green project, like brown field remediation.
Baoding Sino-US Science and Technology Innovation Park
From public press release in Chinese, found by e-cat world a partnership between a partner of Rossi, Industrial Heat LLC and Cherokee fund, and this state supported park. In the press release, Nickel Hydrogen Energy is clearly named.
More data is required to know if the partnership succeeded.
The year 2013, will it be the year of Cold Fusion?
When one observe news around LENR, he is shocked by the difference between feverish activity, thundering announcements , validations which multiply the circumstantial evidences of 'business' credibility ... and outside the dead silence in Orthodox Thought.
Will the year 2013 be the year you will see these two worlds come together in a large general curtain removal on cold fusion?
Some older researchers, don't dare to believe it, since they were so many time disappointed before.
Hearing the same litany of obsolete facts repeated, ignorance of the facts of less than 23 years old, the rejection of any debate, self-referent reasoning, we can estimate that the scientific debate in public will never be possible .
Yet a closer look the situation is different. Hitherto hopes came from scientific experiments that should have convinced rational minds, long ago. But here there is a movement of entrepreneurs and innovators, of large companies worried and looking for any opportunity or risk. All human passion come together to consider the Cold Fusion as an opportunity to catch or at least, not to miss.
The devil came out of the box and nothing can make it go back in.
It will happen, but it will be slower than expected. Will it be 2013? Recent numerous delays, seems to say that the awakening will be no better than 2014. Rossi should report his definitive tests mid 2014, Brillouin will not be ready until late 2014, and Defkalion was late as expected, currently saying they will not make announce before mid January 2013.
Anyway, even if low profile, business actors are more and more integrating LENR. looking honestly at news, what happened in 2013, like Elforsk test of E-cat, their Perspektiv article, Cyclone Power communications, should have flooded the media, and only an awful media blockus prevent that. It will be hard to be accepted, yet it will advance at business speed.